Most of the cases of miscarriage take place within the first 12 weeks of gestation. If miscarriage occurs frequently, it should be diagnosed and find the underlying causes. In some, it may be due to genetic defects. Or else, it can also happen due to certain other causes such as:
- Uterine fibrosis
- Scar tissue in the uterus
- Abnormally shaped uterus
- Hormonal imbalances of prolactin
- Thyroid hormone or progesterone etc.
There are different tests and procedures to find out the cause of miscarriage. It may include:
- Karyotype- Mapping of the chromosomes in order to diagnose genetic defects
- Antibodies tests- Blood tests to detect the abnormality of immune system
- Hysteroscopy- For the procedure, the doctor will use a narrow fiberoptic telescope and insert into the uterus. Through this, the doctor can look inside your uterine cavity.
- Endometrial biopsy- In this procedure, a sample of the endometrial tissue will be examined under a microscope. Through this, the doctor will be able to determine whether the tissue is appropriately developed for an implanting embryo or not.
- Glucose screening- Blood test to diagnose diabetes. Increase in the sugar level may lead to miscarriage
- Blood hormone levels- It will help you in finding out the levels of certain hormones in the blood such as thyroid, progesterone and prolactin etc
- Vaginal ultrasound- Used to detect abnormalities in and around ovaries, uterus, and fallopian tubes.
- Hysterosalpingogram- A procedure which uses x-rays and a special dye to evaluate the inside shape of the uterus.
History and Physical Examination
Before any other tests and procedure for diagnosing miscarriage, the doctor will first examine your overall health condition ( miscarriage history ) and previous medical records. In the case of recurrent pregnancy loss, continuous evaluation will be required to find out the exact cause. In the case of non-pregnant patients who are evaluated for recurrent miscarriage, certain tests are usually performed. It may include:
- Parental chromosome testing
- Blood tests etc.
They are done in order to find out thrombophilia, ovarian function, and diabetes level.