Pulmonary Sequestration and Congenital Cystic Adenoid Malformation

A pulmonary sequestration, otherwise known as ‘bronchopulmonary sequestration’ is a cystic piece of abnormal tissue. This abnormal tissue will not function as the normal lung tissue. They are usually seen within one part of the lung or near to the lung. This kind of tissue can be classified as- microcystic or macrocystic. It is called microcystic when there are many small cysts in it. It is considered macroscopic when there are several large-sized cysts in it. The exact cause of such formations is not yet known to the experts.

Pulmonary sequestration and congenital cystic adenoid malformation are two types of cystic lung diseases. These two cystic lung diseases are differentiated based on the blood vessel that comes directly from the main artery called the aorta.

A prenatal ultrasound is used to diagnose the pulmonary sequestrations. The test will show whether there is a mass/cyst in the chest of the foetus. If the foetus has pulmonary sequestration, the mass will push forward the diaphragm or displace the heart from the normal position. The major feature that distinguishes pulmonary sequestration from congenital cystic adenoid malformation is that, the artery will lead from the cystic mass directly to the aorta.

If the pulmonary sequestration is small or moderate-sized, it can be managed with surgery after the child’s birth. This may not cause any difficulty to the child before or after its birth. As the high blood flow to the tissue caused by the pulmonary sequestration might cause heart failure, it is important to remove them at the earliest. The surgery is safe and does not cause any harm to the normal functioning or development of the lung. The growth and development of the child will be normal even after the birth.